Civil work means civil engineering which is a phenomenal and professional engineering discipline. This involves design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including construction works such as roads, bridges, flyovers, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways. This segment deals with the maintenance, design and construction of both natural and physically built environments. This work can be categorized to following phases namely:
- Design stage
- Engineering stage and
- Construction work at site
Civil engineering is originated from the beginning into several sub-disciplines. It is known as the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering services. This is clearly defined and is distinguished among the divisions of
- non-military engineering and
- Military engineering.
Civil engineering is essential for public sector as well as municipal sector with government involvement. Private sector comprises of individual homeowners; industrial civil works are performed through national and international organizations that are privately owned civil design and construction companies.
Design and engineering are done in the design office. In the present decades, a phenomenal development in civil design technology has come up with various engineering system software, which makes it possible to optimize design and estimate that quantity for civil wok with concrete and steel:
The Civil Engineering Is Subdivided Into The Following Categories:
- Coastal engineering
- Coastal engineering and Coastal management
- Construction engineering
Objectives Of Civil Works:
Construction engineering deals with planning and execution that includes transportation of materials, development of site with the help of hydraulic, environmental, structural and geotechnical engineering. Due to the inherent nature of the business, the construction firms are exposed to higher business risk than other category of civil engineering firms. Those are frequently engaged in more business-like transactions.
This branch of civil engineering involves designing structures taking into consideration the hazardous earthquake exposures and incorporates necessary factor in the designing stage. Earthquake engineering can be labeled as a sub category of Structural engineering.
Earthquake Engineering serves both the purposes:
- understand interaction of structures with the shaky ground of construction site
- predict and take precaution of earthquakes
It is contemporary to sanitary engineering, although sanitary engineering traditionally does not include much of the hazardous waste management and environmental remediation work that is covered by environmental engineering. Public health engineering and environmental health engineering are other terms that are associated with environmental engineering.
Forensic engineering is the investigation of materials, products, structures or components, that collapses or fails causing personal injury or damage to the property of the country or do not operate or function as was intended.
Geo technical Engineering
Geo technical engineering is related to study of rock and soil supporting civil works like buildings and structures. Knowledge of earth science, materials science, mechanics, and hydraulics are incorporated to safely and economically design building foundations, retaining civil walls, and other structures.
Materials Science And Engineering
Materials science, that has some connection with Civil Engineering includes studies, fundamental characteristics of materials, and deals with concrete and mix asphalt concrete, metals such as aluminum and steel and thermosetting polymers. This also includes protection and prevention by painting, and finishes.
Structural engineering is also a subject of civil works and deals with the structural design and structural analysis of buildings, bridges, towers, flyovers, tunnels, under water tunnels, off shore structures.
Civil Engineering Systems
Main aim of Civil Engineering systems is to increase the usages of system software to design, to manage complexity and to bring change in civil engineering for further benefits.
Conclusion – Proper development of civil engineering design and infrastructure to achieve is a holistic, coherent understanding of the relationships between all of the important factors that contribute to successful designing, and construction of the projects within the scheduled time frame.